Orthognathic Surgery and Distraction Osteogenesis in Cranio-Facial Synostoses and Other Craniofacial Anomalies: What Should the Orthodontist Know? 

by Mazzoleni Fabio

Craniofacial malformations are a heterogeneous group of pathologies involving various parts of skull and face in an extremely variable manner, producing alterations in sensory functions, such as sight and hearing, breathing, swallowing, phonation and chewing. The face expressiveness also represents the most important tool in relational and emotional activities. Finally, skull and face structures have very different development timing and they mutually influence each other. As a result, treatment options for these malformations have very different timing in the same areas, including the jaws. In this report, with the aid of clinical cases exemplifying the most frequent classes of craniofacial malformations, treatment options for jaws’ dysmorphoses will be shown both with the classic technique and with the osteodistraction technique at different stages of life. Specifically, applications of surgical, orthopedic and orthodontic techniques in treatment for jaws’ dysmorphoses, with great variability of phenotypic expression both in terms of position and shape, will be discussed. Finally, correlations between jaws’ dysmorphoses and sensory, breathing, swallowing, phonation and chewing alterations as well as potential benefits deriving from medical treatments will be discussed.

Learning Objectives

After this lecture, you will be able to know the classification of craniofacial malformations
After this lecture, you will be able to evaluate functional and relational implications of craniofacial malformations
After this lecture, you will be able to know principles of surgical, orthopaedic and orthodontic treatment of craniofacial malformations